Volume 7, Issue 4, July 2019, Page: 120-124
Influences of Maternal Weight Gain During Pregnancy on Selected Fetal Outcomes
Raguraman Sivalingarajah, Teaching Hospital Kandy, Kandy, Sri Lanka
Wimalasiri Abeykoon, Teaching Hospital Kandy, Kandy, Sri Lanka
Received: Jul. 11, 2019;       Accepted: Aug. 10, 2019;       Published: Aug. 23, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.jgo.20190704.15      View  674      Downloads  121
Weight gain in pregnant mothers has several influencing factors. Studies have shown that maternal weight gain influenced both maternal and fetal immediate and future outcomes. However, the recommended amount of weight gain for optimum maternal and fetal outcome is still uncertain. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out at Teaching Hospital Kandy, for a period of one-year to describe the influence of maternal weight gain during pregnancy in selected fetal outcome such birth weight and APGAR score at birth. 425 participants with normal pre gestational BMI (18.5 kg/m2 - 24.9 kg/m2) were selected by a systematic random sampling technique. Medical disorders complicating pregnancies, twins, previous miscarriages and fetal abnormalities were excluded. Data was extracted from the antenatal record, bed head ticket and by measuring relevant variables (birth weight and APGAR score). Maternal age distributed from 17 to 43 years (Mean=27.97 years: SD=5.72 years). Maternal height distributed from 125cm to 172cm (Mean=154.4cm: SD=5.83cm). Pre pregnancy BMI distributed from 18.5 kg/m2 to 24.9 kg/m2 (Mean=21.67 kg/m2: SD=2.2 kg/m2). Maternal body weight at delivery distributed from 36 kg to 116 kg (Mean=63.8kg: SD= 11.82). Pregnancy weight gain distributed from 3.5kg to 24.5 kg (Mean=9.03kg: SD=3.87). Birth weight distributed from 1.24kg to 4.04 kg (Mean=2.93: SD=0.438). All exposure parameters had a positive linear correlation with birth weight. Almost all the study participants (N=423:99.5%) had achieved an APGAR score of >7 within 10 minutes of birth. In conclusion, maternal weight gain does not affect the birth weight of the newborn and no conclusion is derived on maternal weight gain causing any hypoxic situation at the time of birth. These findings are only applicable to normal pregnancies due to the exclusion criteria. Further studies are recommended with a larger sample size and a prospective cohort design with continuous follow up during the antenatal period.
Body Mass Index, Maternal Weight Gain, Birth Weight, APGAR Score
To cite this article
Raguraman Sivalingarajah, Wimalasiri Abeykoon, Influences of Maternal Weight Gain During Pregnancy on Selected Fetal Outcomes, Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2019, pp. 120-124. doi: 10.11648/j.jgo.20190704.15
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Eastman N, Hellman L. William’s obstetrics. 13th Ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966: 326.
Z. M. Ferraro, F. Contador, A. Tawfiq, K. D. Adamo, L. Gaudet. Gestational weight gain and medical outcome of pregnancy: Obstetric medicine. 2015; 8 (3): 133-137.
U. Radhakrishnan, G. Kolar, P. K. Nirmalan. Cross sectional study of gestational weight gain and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women at a tertiary center in Sothern India. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. 2014; 40 (1): 25-31.
Institute of medicine. Weight gain during pregnancy: reexamining guidelines. Washington, DC: National academic press; 2009.
World health organization, WHO recommendation on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience, Geneva, Switzerland, 2016.
Lumbiganon P, Lapaiboon M, Glumezoglu M, Zousa JP, taneepa Nichkul S, Ruyan p et al. Method of delivery and pregnancy out comes in Asia: The global survey on maternal and perinatal health 2007-2008. Lancet 2010; 375: 490-499.
Ministry of health. Health service delivery: strengthening of maternal health services. Sri Lanka, ministry of health; 2008.
A. Priyanka, A. Bani Tamber. Gestational Weight Gain amoung Healthy Pregnant Women from Asia in Comparison with Institute of Medicine (IOM) Guidelines 2009: A systemic review. Journal of Pregnancy. 2019; Vol 2019, article ID 3849596, 10 pages.
Annual health bulletin, teaching hospital kandy. 2011.
Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Khoo CS, Healey MF, Rawson NL. 1991: Maternal weight gain, diet and infant birth weight: correlations during adolescent pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1991; 44 (4-5): 423-8.
Abram B, Altman SL, Pickett KE. Pregnancy weight gain: still controversial. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2000; 71 (5): 1233-1241.
Abram B, Newman V, Key T, Parker J. Maternal weight gain and premature delivery. Obstetrics and gynecology. 1998; 74 (4): 577-583.
M. F. Young, P. Hong Nguyen, o. y. Addo et.al. Timing of gestatinal weight gain on fetal growth and infant size at birth in Vietnam. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12 (1): p0170192.
R. F. Goldstain, S. K. Abell, S. Ranasinha et.al. Association of gestational weight gain with maternal and infant outcomes. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2017; 317 (2); 2207.
Meera Viswanathan, Anna Maria Siega, Merry-K Moos, eierlein, MS, MPH, Sunni Mumford Julie Knaack, Patricia Thieda LJL and KNL. Outcomes of maternal weight gain. Technology Assesments. New York. New York; 2008.
Rooney BL, Schauberger CW. Excess Pregnancy Weight Gain and Long-Term Obesity : One Decade Later. 2002; 100 (2): 245–52.
R. Pal, M. Maiti, B. Roychoudhury, P. Sanyal, B. chowdhury. Association of pregestational BMI and antenatal weight gain with pregnancy outcome: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study. International Journal of Women’s Health and Reproductive Sciences. 2017; 5 (1): 37-40.
L. Xiao, G. Ding, A. Vinturache et.al. Association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with birth outcomes in Shanghai, China. Scientific Reports. 2017; 7 (1): 41073.
Beaureu FH. Statistics [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jan 10]. Available from: http://fhb.health.gov.lk/web/index.php?option=com_statistics&view=islandwideallresult&Itemid=134&lang=en.
Browse journals by subject