Volume 7, Issue 2, March 2019, Page: 41-45
Utility of Frozen Section in the Evaluation of Borderline Ovarian Tumors: A Single Institution Experience
Marilyn Huang, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Miami, Miami, USA
Matthew Schlumbrecht, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Miami, Miami, USA
Tegan Hunter, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, USA
Mehrdad Nadji, Department of Pathology, University of Miami, Miami, USA
Andre Pinto, Department of Pathology, University of Miami, Miami, USA
Received: Mar. 3, 2019;       Accepted: Apr. 9, 2019;       Published: May 6, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.jgo.20190702.13      View  21      Downloads  11
Background: Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) account for a 10-15% subset of all primary ovarian epithelial neoplasms. Preoperative imaging and serologic markers are often inconclusive at distinguishing between benign, pre-malignant, and malignant ovarian tumor. Limitations at time of frozen section (FS) are relatively well known, and misinterpretation may occur potentially leading to over- and under-treatment. We evaluated all cases of BOTs submitted for FS in our institution to determine the accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis when compared with the final pathology, and possibly identify features that may guide surgical staging decision-making. Methods: We identified all intraoperative diagnoses of BOTs from our institution in a 12-year period. Clinical and pathologic data were abstracted. Intraoperative pathology diagnosis was compared to final pathologic diagnosis. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square and logistic regression. Results: There were 80 cases included for analyses, of which 39 (48.8%) were serous borderline tumor (SBT), 18 (22.5%) mucinous borderline tumors (MBT), 1 (1.2%) endometrioid borderline tumor, and 22 (27.5%) at least borderline tumor (of various histologies). There were 13 cases with a discrepancy between FS and final diagnosis. In patients with a discrepancy where final pathology demonstrated carcinoma, 4/11 (36.3%) were not staged or had incomplete staging. Subsequently, 3/4 (75%) underwent a re-operation for staging purposes. In patients with discrepant pathology, discrepancy was more common 8/37 (21.6%) among non-gynecologic pathologists compared to 5/43 (11.6%) among gynecologic pathologists, but not statistically significant (p=0.23). When “at least borderline” tumor was diagnosed at FS, 10/22 (45%) had invasive malignancies on final pathology compared to diagnosis of BOT “only” on FS; on which 1/58 (1.7%) had invasive carcinoma. The cases with histologic diagnosis of BOT “only” were associated with significantly reduced discrepancy (OR 0.04 [95% CI 0.01-0.18], p< 0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, use of intraoperative evaluation for ovarian tumors is a useful diagnostic tool but has its limitations. In intraoperative cases where pathologists call “at least borderline”, strong consideration for surgical staging should be contemplated with re-evaluation of preoperative testing. Moreover, when possible, direct communication between surgeon and pathologist at time of FS diagnosis of BOT may be valuable.
Ovarian Tumor, Borderline, Intraoperative Diagnosis, Frozen Section
To cite this article
Marilyn Huang, Matthew Schlumbrecht, Tegan Hunter, Mehrdad Nadji, Andre Pinto, Utility of Frozen Section in the Evaluation of Borderline Ovarian Tumors: A Single Institution Experience, Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Vol. 7, No. 2, 2019, pp. 41-45. doi: 10.11648/j.jgo.20190702.13
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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