Volume 6, Issue 4, July 2018, Page: 86-93
Olfactory Sensitivity Change in the Dysmenorrhea Women: A Cross-Sectional Study
Ren-Jen Hwang, Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; Research Center of Clinical Competency Center, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Yu-Jia Yan, Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Hsin-Ju Chen, Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Yu-Sheun Lee, Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Department of Nursing, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan
Yueh-O Chuang, Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan
Received: Jul. 31, 2018;       Accepted: Aug. 14, 2018;       Published: Sep. 3, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.jgo.20180604.13      View  440      Downloads  40
Background: Dysmenorrhea is accompanied by abnormal brain metabolism in affective cortical-limbic structures; regions are functionally involved in nociceptive and olfactory processing. The study aims to examine the manifestation of chemical sensitivity changes in women with dysmenorrhea. Methods: A cross-sectional correlation research design was used for this study. Five subsets of odors (lemon, H2S, ethyl, acetone, and rose) were tested on 120 women. The visual analogue scale was presented to evaluate the intensity (strong to weak) and hedonic value (pleasant to unpleasant) of each odor. The participants underwent Pain index of dysmenorrhea questionnaire (DQ) and psychophysical assessment after performing olfactory tests. Results: (1) An increased unpleasantness rating of the H2S odorant was associated with the degree of dysmenorrhea. DQ-severity score was the statistical significance of the predictor variable on H2S odorant perception alteration (P =.006), after controlling the collinear variables from regression. (2) Lemon, acetone, and ethyl odorant as positive hedonic values recognized were not significantly related to the DQ pain scores. (3) Additionally, decreased perception of the intensity of the rose odorant was related to rising dysmenorrheal frequency level. (P =.015). (4) Women with higher DQ score were positively related to psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and stress level. Conclusions: Findings disclosed that significantly raised the unpleasantness level of odorant H2S, and weakening the intensity value of the pleasantness rose odorant relates to women with severe dysmenorrhea symptoms. The neurobiological bases of olfactory sensitivity changes refer to olfactory-limbic system disturbances and appropriate management of menstrual cramps were discussed.
Dysmenorrhea, Olfactory Sensitivity, Psychometric Test
To cite this article
Ren-Jen Hwang, Yu-Jia Yan, Hsin-Ju Chen, Yu-Sheun Lee, Yueh-O Chuang, Olfactory Sensitivity Change in the Dysmenorrhea Women: A Cross-Sectional Study, Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2018, pp. 86-93. doi: 10.11648/j.jgo.20180604.13
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Tu CH, et al.: Abnormal cerebral metabolism during menstrual pain in primary dysmenorrhea. Neuroimage 2009, 47(1): p. 28-35.
Tu CH, et al.: Brain morphological changes associated with cyclic menstrual pain. Pain 2010, 150(3): p. 462-468.
Bajaj P, H. Madsen, and L. Arendt-Nielsen: A comparison of modality-specific somatosensory changes during menstruation in dysmenorrheic and nondysmenorrheic women. Clin J Pain 2002, 18(3): p. 180-190.
Granot M, et al.: Pain perception in women with dysmenorrhea. Obstet Gynecol 2001, 98(3):p. 407-411.
Stein MB, et al.: Increased amygdala and insula activation during emotion processing in anxiety-prone subjects. Am J Psychiatry 2007, 164(2):p. 318-327.
Cantor C: Post-traumatic stress disorder: evolutionary perspectives. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2009, 43(11): p. 1038-1048.
Onur OA, et al: Noradrenergic enhancement of amygdala responses to fear. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2009, 4(2): p. 119-126.
Golub ET, Latka M, Hagan H, Havens JR, Hudson SM, Kapadia F, Campbell JV, Garfein RS, Thomas DL, Strathdee SA et al: Screening for depressive symptoms among HCV-infected injection drug users: examination of the utility of the CES-D and the Beck Depression Inventory. Journal of urban health: bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 2004, 81(2):278-290.
Okun A, Stein RE, Bauman LJ, Silver EJ: Content validity of the Psychiatric Symptom Index, CES-depression Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory from the perspective of DSM-IV. Psychological reports 1996, 79(3 Pt 1):1059-1069.
Waehrens EE, Amris K, Bartels EM, Christensen R, Danneskiold-Samsoe B, Bliddal H, Gudbergsen H: Agreement between touch-screen and paper-based patient-reported outcomes for patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized cross-over reproducibility study. Scandinavian journal of rheumatology 2015:1-8.
David AG, Kenneth, F. S.: Epidemiology series-Descriptive studies: what they can and cannot do. LANCET 2002, 359 (12):p. 145-149.
Higgins ET: Beyond pleasure and pain. Am Psychol 1997, 52(12):p. 1280-1300.
Nielsen AALaJH: Half the Thrill Is in the Chase: Twisted Inferences from Embodied Cognitions and Brand Evaluation. Journal of Consumer Research 2010, 37(1):p. 143-158.
Ulrich-Lai YMaJPH: Neural regulation of endocrine and autonomic stress responses. Nat Rev Neurosci 2009, 10(6):p. 397-409.
Zald DHaJV: Pardo, Emotion, olfaction, and the human amygdala: amygdala activation during aversive olfactory stimulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997, 94(8):p. 4119-4124.
Gottfried JA, et al.: Functional heterogeneity in human olfactory cortex: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurosci 2002, 22(24): p. 10819-10828.
Reilly SaMAB: Conditioned taste aversion and amygdala lesions in the rat: a critical review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2005, 29(7):p. 1067-1088.
Seubert J, Gregory KM, Chamberland J, Dessirier JM, Lundstrom JN: Odor valence linearly modulates attractiveness, but not age assessment, of invariant facial features in a memory-based rating task. PloS one 2014, 9(5):e98347.
Fiedler N, Kelly-McNeil K, Ohman-Strickland P, Zhang J, Ottenweller J, Kipen HM: Negative affect and chemical intolerance as risk factors for building-related symptoms: a controlled exposure study. Psychosom Med 2008, 70(2):254-262.
Fjaeldstad A: Testing olfactory function and mapping the structural olfactory networks in the brain. Dan Med J 2018, 65(1).
Lundstrom JN, Seven S, Olsson MJ, Schaal B, Hummel T: Olfactory event-related potentials reflect individual differences in odor valence perception. Chemical senses 2006, 31(8):705-711.
Gureje O, et al.: The relation between multiple pains and mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Surveys. Pain 2008, 135(1-2):p. 82-91.
Wang L, et al.: Stress and dysmenorrhoea: a population based prospective study. Occupational and environmental medicine 2004, 61(12):p. 1021-1026.
Currie SRaJW: Chronic back pain and major depression in the general Canadian population. Pain 2004, 107(1-2):p. 54-60.
Gureje O: Comorbidity of pain and anxiety disorders. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2008, 10(4):p. 318-322.
Bradley BF, et al.: The effects of prolonged rose odor inhalation in two animal models of anxiety. Physiol Behavior 2007, 92(5):p. 931-938.
Gureje O: Treating chronic pain in the context of comorbid depression. Pain 2008, 134(1-2):p. 3-4.
Bell IR, et al.: Individual differences in neural sensitization and the role of context in illness from low-level environmental chemical exposures. Environ Health Perspect 1997, 105 Suppl 2:p. 457-466.
Andersson L, Claeson AS, Nyberg L, Nordin S: Short-term olfactory sensitization involves brain networks relevant for pain, and indicates chemical intolerance. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2017, 220(2 Pt B):503-509.
Yuan TF, Hou G, Arias-Carrion O: Chronic stress impacts on olfactory system. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets 2015, 14(4):486-491.
Eisch AJ, Petrik D: Depression and hippocampal neurogenesis: a road to remission? Science 2012, 338(6103):72-75.
Tottenham NaMAS: A review of adversity, the amygdala and the hippocampus: a consideration of developmental timing. Front Hum Neurosci 2009, 3:p. 68.
Bielau H, Brisch R, Gos T, Dobrowolny H, Baumann B, Mawrin C, Kreutzmann P, Bernstein HG, Bogerts B, Steiner J: Volumetric analysis of the hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus in non-suicidal and suicidal mood disorder patients--a post-mortem study. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets 2013, 12(7):914-920.
Hou G, Tian R, Li J, Yuan TF: Chronic stress and Parkinson's disease. CNS neuroscience & therapeutics 2014, 20(1):1-2.
Hou G, Xiong W, Wang M, Chen X, Yuan TF: Chronic stress influences sexual motivation and causes damage to testicular cells in male rats. The journal of sexual medicine 2014, 11(3):653-663.
Yuan TF, Hou G: The effects of stress on glutamatergic transmission in the brain. Molecular neurobiology 2015, 51(3):1139-1143.
Graveling RA, Pilkington A, George JP, Butler MP, Tannahill SN: A review of multiple chemical sensitivity. Occupational and environmental medicine 1999, 56(2):73-85.
Labarge XS, McCaffrey RJ: Multiple chemical sensitivity: a review of the theoretical and research literature. Neuropsychology review 2000, 10(4):183-211.
Mozhaev EA, Golubev IR: [Multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome. Review]. Gigiena i sanitariia 2000(6):48-50.
Nowak D, Pedrosa Gil F, Angerer P, Tretter F, Eis D: [Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS): a review]. Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift 2005, 130(47):2713-2718.
Hawkins JL, Moore NJ, Miley D, Durham PL: Secondary traumatic stress increases expression of proteins implicated in peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal neurons. Brain Res 2018, 1687:162-172.
Browse journals by subject