Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2016, Page: 68-71
Bacterial Vaginosis as a Risk Factor for Preterm Labour-An Analysis of Age and Duration of Marriage
Zaheera Saadia, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Qassim University, Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Robina Farrukh, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan
Sadia Asghar, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan
Received: Dec. 5, 2016;       Accepted: Dec. 16, 2016;       Published: Jan. 12, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.jgo.20160406.17      View  3207      Downloads  120
Abstract
Preterm labour is the onset of labour between ≥ 24 weeks to < 37 weeks of gestation. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial condition with predominant lactobacilli in the vaginal flora. It is an important risk factor for preterm labour with an incidence of 5-18% of all deliveries causing increased perinatal morbidity and mortality with subsequent neurodevelopmental problems as cerebral palsy. We aimed to determine the association of BV with preterm labour population. A case control study was conducted comparing the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in women having term labour with those who had preterm delivery. Chi square test was used to compare differences in participants’ age, duration of pregnancy and duration of marriage. Odd ratio and CI was calculated for the association between BV and preterm labour. Nearly half of the participants that experienced preterm labour were between 21 and 25 years old (46.7%, n = 35) and nearly half of the participants that experienced term pregnancy were between 21 and 25 years old as well (48.0%, n = 36). Additionally, the majority of participants had been married for three to four years, for those that experienced preterm labour (64.0%, n = 48) and term pregnancy (52.0%, n = 39). Furthermore, nearly half of the participants’ duration of pregnancy was between 33 and 34 weeks (49.3%, n = 37) and 52.0% of participants who experienced term pregnancy had been pregnant for 37 to 38 weeks (n = 39). Women with Bacterial Vaginosis, experienced preterm labour in 26.7% cases (n = 20) as compared to those who had term pregnancy 12.0% (n = 9). BV was significantly associated with preterm labour (OR=7.3, 95% CI =1.9-27.5, P=0.003). There was no significant difference in participants’ age between preterm labour and term pregnancy groups, (p value=0.880). Additionally, there was no significant difference in participants’ duration of marriage between preterm labour and term pregnancy groups, (p value=0.801). Bacterial Vaginosis is a risk factor for preterm labor. The study also concluded that there is no significant association between age, duration of pregnancy and duration of marriage between preterm labour and term pregnancy groups.
Keywords
Pregnancy, Bacterial Vaginosis (BV), Preterm Labour
To cite this article
Zaheera Saadia, Robina Farrukh, Sadia Asghar, Bacterial Vaginosis as a Risk Factor for Preterm Labour-An Analysis of Age and Duration of Marriage, Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 68-71. doi: 10.11648/j.jgo.20160406.17
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Von Der Pool BA. Preterm labor: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 1998 May 15; 57 (10): 2457-64. Review.
[2]
Islam A, Safdar A, Malik A. Bacterial vaginosis. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009 Sep; 59 (9): 601-4.
[3]
Georgiou HM, Di Quinzio MK, Permezel M, Brennecke SP. Predicting Preterm Labour: Current Status and Future Prospects. Dis Markers. 2015; 2015: 435014. doi: 10.1155/2015/435014. Epub 2015 Jun 15. Review. PubMed PMID: 26160993; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4486247.
[4]
Waring GJ, Robson SC, Bulmer JN, Tyson-Capper AJ. Inflammatory Signalling in Fetal Membranes: Increased Expression Levels of TLR 1 in the Presence of Preterm Histological Chorioamnionitis. PLoS One. 2015 May 12; 10 (5): e0124298. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124298. eCollection 2015.
[5]
Krauss-Silva L, Almada-Horta A, Alves MB, Camacho KG, Moreira ME, Braga A. Basic vaginal pH, bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis: prevalence in early pregnancy and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, a prospective study in a low socioeconomic and multiethnic South American population. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014 Mar 19; 14: 107. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-14-107.
[6]
St John E, Mares D, Spear GT. Bacterial vaginosis and host immunity. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2007 Feb; 4 (1): 22-8.
[7]
McDonald HM, Brocklehurst P, Gordon A. Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24; (1): CD000262. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 1: CD000262.
[8]
Guise J-M, Mahon SM, Aickin M, Helfand M, Peipert JF, Westhoff C. Screening for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Am J Prev Med. 2001; 20 (3): 62–72.
[9]
Srinivasan S, Hoffman NG, Morgan MT, Matsen FA, Fiedler TL, Hall RW, Ross FJ, McCoy CO, Bumgarner R, Marrazzo JM, Fredricks DN. Bacterial communities in women with bacterial vaginosis: high resolution phylogenetic analyses reveal relationships of microbiota to clinical criteria. PLoS One. 2012; 7 (6): e37818.
[10]
Brocklehurst P, Gordon A, Heatley E, Milan SJ. Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jan 31; (1): CD000262. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000262.
[11]
Bradshaw CS, Vodstrcil LA, Hocking JS, Law M, Pirotta M, Garland SM, De Guingand D, Morton AN, Fairley CK. Recurrence of bacterial vaginosis is significantly associated with posttreatment sexual activities and hormonal contraceptive use. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Mar; 56 (6): 777-86.
[12]
Alhaj AM, Radi EA, Adam I. Epidemiology of preterm birth in Omdurman Maternity hospital, Sudan. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010 Feb; 23 (2): 131-4.
[13]
Verstraelen H, Swidsinski A. The biofilm in bacterial vaginosis: implications for epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013 Feb; 26 (1): 86-9. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835c20cd. Review.
[14]
Redelinghuys MJ, Ehlers MM, Dreyer AW, Kock MM. Normal flora and bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: an overview. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2016 May; 42 (3): 352-63.
Browse journals by subject