Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2014, Page: 32-36
Psycho-Emotional Disorders in Postpartum Women after Stillbirth
Gustavo Romero-Gutiérrez, Dept Obstetrics and Gynecology UMAE Hospital de Gineco-Pediatría Nº 48, IMSS, León, Guanajuato, México
Nadia Berenice Bracamontes-Bayardo, Dept Obstetrics and Gynecology UMAE Hospital de Gineco-Pediatría Nº 48, IMSS, León, Guanajuato, México
Armando Ruiz-Treviño, Dept Obstetrics and Gynecology UMAE Hospital de Gineco-Pediatría Nº 48, IMSS, León, Guanajuato, México
Received: Apr. 30, 2014;       Accepted: May 8, 2014;       Published: May 20, 2014
DOI: 10.11648/j.jgo.20140203.11      View  3118      Downloads  136
Objective: To identify psycho-emotional disorders diagnosed in women after stillbirth. Design: Cross-sectional study a face-to-face questionnaire. Setting: Postpartum area at a tertiary care referral hospital in León, Guanajuato, México. Participants: 210 women at immediate postpartum, divided into 105 women with stillbirth and 105 with healthy live newborn (controls). Data collection: Women answered face-to-face the questionnaire Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory-2. Findings: In 34.2% of women who had stillbirth, were diagnosed psycho-emotional disorders, compared with controls who were found in 19.0%, p = 0.019. In the logistic regression analysis the only significant risk factor associated to psycho-emotional disorder was the presence of fetal death, p = 0.002. The psycho-emotional disorders found in women with stillbirth were: depression (p = 0.026), hysteria (p = 0.012), psychotic deviation (p = 0.007), paranoia (p = 0.013), psychasthenia (p = 0.034), schizophrenia (p = 0.017), low self-esteem (p = 0.044) and anxiety (p = 0.049). Key conclusions: There is higher frequency of psycho-emotional disorders in women who suffer fetal death. Implications for practice: It is recommended to provide early care and psychological support to women who deliver a stillbirth.
Fetal Death, Stillbirth, Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory-2 (Mmpi-2), Psycho-Emotional Disorders
To cite this article
Gustavo Romero-Gutiérrez, Nadia Berenice Bracamontes-Bayardo, Armando Ruiz-Treviño, Psycho-Emotional Disorders in Postpartum Women after Stillbirth, Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2014, pp. 32-36. doi: 10.11648/j.jgo.20140203.11
Panduro J, Pérez J, Panduro E, Castro J, Vázquez M. Factores de riesgo prenatales en la muerte fetal tardía, Hospital Civil de Guadalajara, Mexico. Rev Chil Obstet Ginecol 2011; 76: 169-174
Cousens S, Blencowe H, Stanton C, Chou D, Ahmed S, Steinhardt L, Creanga A, Tuncalp O, Patel Z, Gupta S, Say L, Lawn J. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of still-birth rates in 2009 with trends since 1995: a systematic analysis. Lancet 2011; 377: 1319-1330
Lawn J, Blencowe H, Pattinson R, Cousens S, Kumar R, Ibiebele I, Gardosi J, Day L, Stanton C. Stillbirths: Where? when? why? How to make the data count? Lancet 2011; 377: 1448-1463
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Management of still-birth. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 102 Obstet Gynecol 2009; 113: 748-761
Gardosi J, Ma-durasinghe V, Williams M, Malik A, Francis A. Maternal and fetal risk factors for stillbirth: popula-tion based study. BMJ 2013; 346: 108
Warshak C, Wolfe K, Russell K, Habli M, Lewis D, De Franco E. Influence of adolescence and obesity on the rate of stillbirth. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2013; 27: 346-352
Flenady V, Koopmans L, Middleton P, Froen JF, Smith G, Gibbons K, Coory M, Gordon A, Ellwood D, McIntyre H, Fretts R, Ezzati M. Major risk factors for stillbirth in high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2011; 377: 1331-1340
Radestad I, Steineck G, Nordin C, Sjogren B. Psychological complications after stillbirth-influence of memories and immediate management: population based study. BMJ 1996; 312: 1505-1508
Kersting A, Wagner B. Complicated grief after perinatal loss. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2012; 14: 187-194
Blackmore E, Coté D, Tang W, Glover V, Evans J, Golding J, O’Connor T. Previous prenatal loss as predictor of perinatal depression and anxiety. Br J Psychiatry 2011; 198: 373-378
Engerlhard I, Van Den Hout M, Arntz A. Posttraumatic stress disorder after pregnancy loss. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2001; 23: 62-66
Butcher JN, Dahlstrom WG, Graham JR, Tellegen A, Kaemmer B. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2): Manual for administration and scoring. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.
D’Orazio L, Meverowitz B, Korst L, Romero R, Goodwin T. Evidence against a link between hyperemesis gravidarum and personality characteristics from an ethnically diverse sample of pregnant women: a pilot study. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2011; 20: 137-144
Hintze J. Number Cruncher Statistical System. Kaysville, Utah: Statistical Software, 2005. Accessed December 6, 2012.Available at http://www.ncss.com.
Arranz L, Gaviño S, Escobedo F. Depresión posparto en perdida gestacional recurrente. Presentación de un caso. Rev Esp Med 2005; 10: 71-73
Urbina C, Villaseñor S. Los trastornos mentales y el embarazo. Rev Dig Univ 2005; 6: 1-6
Radestad I, Malm MC, Lindgren H, Pettersson K, Larsson LL. Being alone in silence – Mothers’ experiences upon confirmation of their baby’s death in utero. Midwifery 2014; 30: e91-95
Vargas J, Pacheco A. Óbito fetal, distimia y reacción depresiva. Centro Regional de Investigación en Psicología 2011; 5: 49-55
MacDorman M, Kirmeyer S,Wilson E. Fetal and perinatal mortality, United States, 2006. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2012; 60: 1-23
Fretts R. Etiology and prevention of stillbirth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 193: 1923-1935
Reddy U. Prediction and prevention of recurrent stillbirth. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110: 1151-1164
Gravensteen I, Helgadottir L, Jacobsen E, Sandset P, Ekeberg Ø. Long-term impact of intrauterine fetal death on quality of life and depression: a case-control study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2012; 7: 43
Blackmore E, Coté-Arsenault D, Tang W, Glover V, Evans J, Golding J, O’Connor T. Previous prenatal loss as predictor of perinatal depression and anxiety. Br J Psychiatry 2011; 198: 373-378
Frias A, Luikenaar R, Sullivan A, Lee R, Porter T, Branch D, Silver R. Poor obstetric outcome in subsequent pregnancies in women with prior fetal death. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 521-526
Rivas E, Vasquez D. Óbito fetal: Hallazgos de patología en una institución de alta complejidad. Cartagena, Colombia, 2010-2011. Rev Col Obs y Gin 2012; 63: 376-381
Engerlhard I, Van Den Hout M, Schouten E. Neuroticism and low educational level predict the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder in women after miscarriage or stillbirth. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2006; 28: 414-417
Carrera L. Papel del obstetra ante la pérdida perinatal. Tesis Doctoral. Universidad de Valencia, Facultad de Medicina 1995: 1-281.
Gausia K, Moran A, Ali M, Ryder D, Fisher C, Koblinsky M. Psychological and social consequences among mothers suffering from perinatal loss: perspective from a low income country. BMC Public Health 2011; 9: 451
Mills T, Ricklesford C, Cooke A, Heazell A, Whitworth M, Lavender T. Parents’ experiences expectations of care in pregnancy after stillbirth or neonatal death: a metasynthesis. BJOG 2014; Mar 4, (Epub ahead of print)
Romero-Gutiérrez G, Pérez-Durán N, Camarillo-Trujillo A, Ruiz-Treviño A. Psy-cho-emotional disorders in women after spontaneous abortion. Clinical Medicine Research 2013; 2: 6-10.
Browse journals by subject